The initial stimulus was to obtain robust prospective information on the risk of breast cancer associated with use of different types of menopausal hormone therapy HT. In the early s use of HT increased rapidly in the UK and elsewhere, stimulated in part by claims that use of HT could improve general well-being and increase life expectancy.
By the mids, however, worldwide evidence was beginning to show that HT preparations increased breast cancer risk, though there was little information about the effect of the type of HT most commonly used in Europe, containing both oestrogens and progestagens. For example, large proportions had begun smoking and using Pussy new Rice Lake contraceptives as teenagers and young adults, and the long-term effects of these behaviours could not Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical studied reliably until the s.
At the same time there was growing concern about the effects of the increasing prevalence of obesity, and claims that other factors such as diet had important effects on health, all of which required large-scale prospective evidence. The UK National Health Service NHS provides extraordinarily efficient ways of establishing and maintaining long-term follow-up for large prospective epidemiological studies. In 66 NHS screening centres, the Million Women Study recruitment questionnaire was included with the invitation letter for screening.
Pilot studies in —96 had shown that inclusion of a questionnaire Hot Porepunkah milfs the invitation did not affect uptake of breast screening. Further information, including the study Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical, copies of questionnaires, data collected, data access policy and list of publications can be found on the study website [ www.
Between andthe Million Women Study recruited about one in every four UK women born in —, i. Half of the women invited by the participating screening centres brought completed questionnaires with them when they were screened, or posted their questionnaires to the Million Women Study Coordinating Centre. Participants gave written consent for re-contact and for follow-up through screening clinic and other medical records. The Million Women Study: Breast Cancer Res ; 1: The original article is an open access article distributed under Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License [ http: The study design and methods were first reported in The cohort included 1.
The median year of birth Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical the cohort wasand at recruitment in — women were aged 56 [standard deviation SD 5] years on average. The study includes women with a wide range of backgrounds, behaviours and lifestyles at recruitment and their characteristics were, not surprisingly, broadly similar to those of all UK women of their age at the time. A fifth were current Horney girls Antigua And Barbuda at recruitment.
Typical of UK women of their age, almost a quarter reported that they did not drink alcohol, and among the drinkers the average consumption was about five drinks per week.
Table 1. The entire cohort is followed up annually by record linkage to routinely collected NHS data on deaths, emigrations, cancers and hospital Colhester. For some study participants, additional electronic linked health data are available, for example Speed dating Meulrivier primary care consultations and prescriptions, and for cancer screening. Table 2.
Data on deaths and hospital admissions are available to 1 April Only 1. Such women are included in relevant analyses until the date of their withdrawal from follow-up. Information has also been collected for subsets of participants through additional postal and online questionnaires, e.
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At recruitment, and through the subsequent four re-survey questionnaires, information on about variables has been collected, about a range of sociodemographic, lifestyle and other personal factors. The Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical, and a summary table of the information collected at each, can be viewed on the study website.
Table 3. Million Women Study: Various validation and other studies have been done in subsets of the cohort to address methodological issues of measurement error, regression dilution and changes in exposures over time. Online h recall of diet has been collected and repeat dietary questionnaires completed, to assess the repeatability of self-reported dietary data over time. Clinical outcomes recorded in routinely collected NHS data have been compared with those recorded in medical notes, primary care records or screening Adult seeking casual sex Wyanet Illinois 61379 for breast cancer, 11 vascular disease, 12 motor neurone disease 13 and dementia.
Full details of the wide range of findings and publications using Million Women Study data are available on the study website. Two key findings are as follows.Meet Woman For Sex In Gresham Oregon
We have shown that typicql risk of cancers of the breast and endometrium vary substantially by the type of HT used. For ovarian cancer, use of HT slightly increases risk, but there is no difference in the effects of oestrogen-progestagen and oestrogen-only preparations. We have shown that the hazards of smoking, and also the benefits of stopping smoking, in women are greater Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical previously thought. Smokers were three times more likely to die prematurely than never smokers, the equivalent of losing 11 years of life, on average.
Figure reprinted and adapted from Lancet ; Beral et al.
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Copyrightwith permission from Elsevier. All-cause mortality in current and in ex-smokers in the Million Women Study. Adapted with permission from Pirie et al. Strengths include: Re-surveys and measurements of various factors provide Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical measures of changing exposures, so that analyses can take account of measurement error, regression dilution and changes in exposure over time.
Data linkage offers the potential for continued, cost-effective follow-up for many more years and, as routine health databases expand, for incorporation of additional data.
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The study has the advantage that data are available to address a wide range of questions, now and in the future. Its observational nature, however, means that it is sometimes difficult to establish causation.
Blood samples are available only for a minority of participants, and were provided several years after recruitment. The current lack of routinely recorded information available for NHS outpatient diagnoses, and the fact that information is currently available from primary care only for a sample of the cohort, mean that there is at present limited information on outcomes not involving hospital admission. The Million Women Study welcomes proposals for data access and sharing from bona fide researchers; details of the study, the data available and the data access application process can be found on the study website [ http: Enquiries should be directed through the website to the Administrator, Richard Doll Centenary Archive.
Profile in a nutshell The Million Women Study is a population-based prospective study of 1. It includes about one in every four UK women born ini. Information on a wide range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors has been collected at recruitment, at four subsequent re-surveys and by online questionnaire. Follow-up through Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical record Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical to routinely Wives seeking hot sex GA Mansfield 30255 NHS data on deaths, emigrations, cancer registrations and hospital admissions is virtually complete.
The Million Women Study uses a controlled data access model [ http: Co-principal investigators: Over a million women in the UK have given their time and energy to fill in detailed questionnaires about their health.
The main acknowledgement is undoubtedly due to them.
The contribution from collaborators is also gratefully acknowledged, as is that from staff at general practices throughout the UK for their generous help in collecting blood samples. We thank staff at NHS data providers for their help Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical support in enabling data linkage.
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Close mobile search navigation Article Re any nice Colchester women 99 typical. Volume Article Contents. Why was the cohort set up? Who is in the cohort? How often have they been followed up? What has been measured? What has it found? Key findings and publications. What are the main strengths and weaknesses of the study?
Can I get hold of the data? Can I find out more? Cohort Profile: Oxford Academic. Google Scholar.
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